Technology

What Role Does Conformal Coating Play in PCB SMT?

Conformal Coating Play in PCB SMT

PCBs are used across a wide range of applications and industries. They are found in medical devices such as heart rate monitors and imaging machines, automotive components like navigation systems and sensors, consumer electronics such as mobile phones and laptops and even aerospace equipment such as power supplies and communication monitoring.

One of the most important roles that pcb smt play is as an insulation for critical components. This is achieved by conformal coating. Conformal coating is a thin polymeric film that “conforms” to the shape of the circuit board and its components, providing protection from heat, humidity, light and corrosion. This protective barrier is essential for extending the working life of the circuit board and its components.

In the past surface mount technology (SMT) was used to automatically fit and solder the surface-mounted components on the circuit boards. While this approach significantly improved the quality and speed of production, it was not foolproof. In particular, many smaller components such as resistors and capacitors have fine-pitch leads which made it difficult to fit them correctly through the holes on the PCB.

This often meant that the leads missed the holes and if this occurred it could cause problems with the functioning of the device. In order to overcome this problem conformal coating was introduced. Conformal coating is a clear, semi-translucent polymer that is applied to the exposed areas of a printed circuit board (PCB) in order to protect them from environmental factors such as moisture, salt spray, chemicals and extreme temperatures. The coated surfaces of a circuit board can still be machined and etched but will not be damaged by these external factors.

What Role Does Conformal Coating Play in PCB SMT?

A successful conformal coating will prevent the corrosion of metal components on a PCB. Humidity is a primary cause of corrosion for electronic components as water molecules can react with the metal parts and create undesired conductive paths. Conformal coatings are designed to provide a waterproof barrier for the printed circuit board and its components and are tested to ensure that they can withstand humidity.

Conformal coating can be applied using a number of methods including dipping, brushing and spray application. Dipping involves immersing the PCB in a coating solution such as acrylic or urethane. The immersion time, speed and viscosity all have an effect on the resulting film formation. It is also a relatively labour-intensive process and can be inefficient for high volume processing. Dipping is also likely to create air bubbles which may compromise the integrity of the finished product.

Brushing is a manual application method which is typically used in repair and rework applications. It can be effective but is dependent upon the skill of the operator and the consistency of the application. Spray application includes aerosols, batch spraying and selective spraying which can be useful for small-scale production or touch ups. Finally, a dispensing system is a more efficient way to apply conformal coatings and is ideal for large-scale production and PCB repair. All of these methods generate potentially toxic emissions such as toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene which can enter the breathing spaces of workers.

Technology

The Surface Mount PCB Process and What You Should Know

PCB Process and What You Should Know

The circuit board manufacturing industry uses a lot of abbreviations. Some of them are technical while others are simply shorthand for common terms. Among these, surface mount is an important acronym and one that is often used by PCB manufacturers. It stands for surface-mount technology, which encompasses all assembling and mounting techniques for things that are mounted on the printed circuit board.

This process is able to handle more complex electronic components than through-hole technology, which requires components with leads that emerge from the bottom of the package. The leads connect the chip to other components on the board. This type of assembly allows for a compact form factor and lower production costs. It also offers a high degree of accuracy and flexibility for placement.

As a result, it is the preferred method for high-density products. However, it is important to understand that there are certain situations where surface mount pcb may not be suitable. For instance, if your product needs a robust mechanical connection or a large number of components, through-hole technology may be more appropriate.

During the SMT process, the component is placed on the board using a paste that contains solder, flux, and binders. The board is then heated so the paste melts and adheres to the component, and the binders solidify. This process is called reflow soldering. It is performed using a machine with a heated platform, and it ensures that the solder joints are fully connected.

Another benefit of surface-mounting is that it can reduce the amount of stress or vibration that affects the circuit board. Through-hole components are prone to damage when the board is subjected to stress, such as during a power surge or high temperatures. In contrast, surface-mount components are much more stable, making them a better choice for devices that will be used in harsh environments.

The Surface Mount PCB Process and What You Should Know

SMT is the most popular method for assembling PCBs because it is faster and more accurate than through-hole mounting. It is also more flexible because the board can be designed with a variety of components. This is an advantage for manufacturers who design products for multiple markets or need a higher level of performance from their electronics.

Choosing the right surface-mount PCB assembly service provider is crucial to the success of your project. Look for a company that has extensive experience working with a wide range of components. It should also have a reputation for customer support and fast turnaround. The right company can save you time and money while delivering the highest quality results. Twisted Traces is a leading SMT manufacturer with years of experience serving customers from different industries. Our team is dedicated to providing the best possible experience for our customers. We offer a full range of services, including CAD, prototyping, and production. Contact us today to learn more about our capabilities and how we can help you meet your goals.

Surface Mount Technology (SMT) has revolutionized the manufacturing of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by allowing components to be mounted directly onto the surface of the board. This advancement has enabled the production of more compact, reliable, and efficient electronic devices. The primary components involved in surface mount PCB assembly include various surface mount devices (SMDs), the PCB substrate, solder paste, and essential assembly equipment.

Technology

What are the primary applications of print pcb board?

primary applications of print pcb board

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are integral to the functionality of a wide array of electronic devices, and print PCB boards, in particular, serve as the backbone for numerous applications across various industries. These versatile circuit boards find primary applications in sectors ranging from consumer electronics to aerospace and beyond, playing a pivotal role in powering the technology that defines our modern world.

One of the primary applications of print pcb board is in consumer electronics. From smartphones and tablets to televisions and gaming consoles, print PCB boards are at the heart of these devices, facilitating the interconnection of components and enabling their seamless operation. The compact size and high reliability of print PCB boards make them ideal for use in portable electronic gadgets, where space and durability are paramount.

In the automotive industry, print PCB boards are utilized in a multitude of applications, including engine control units, infotainment systems, and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS). These boards enable the integration of sensors, microcontrollers, and communication modules, allowing vehicles to perform critical functions such as engine management, navigation, and collision detection. The rugged design and thermal stability of print PCB boards make them well-suited for the demanding environment of automotive applications.

What are the primary applications of print pcb board?

Print PCB boards also play a crucial role in the field of industrial automation and control. From manufacturing machinery to robotics systems, these boards are employed to control and monitor various processes, enhancing efficiency, accuracy, and safety in industrial settings. The ability to customize circuit designs and integrate specialized components makes print PCB boards an indispensable tool for engineers designing complex automation solutions.

Moreover, print PCB boards find extensive use in the telecommunications sector, where they serve as the backbone of communication networks. Whether in telecommunications infrastructure or consumer devices like routers and modems, these boards enable the transmission and reception of signals, ensuring seamless connectivity in an increasingly interconnected world. The high-speed data transfer capabilities of print PCB boards make them essential for meeting the growing demands of modern telecommunications systems.

In the medical industry, print PCB boards are utilized in a wide range of applications, including diagnostic equipment, patient monitoring devices, and medical imaging systems. These boards enable the precise control and measurement of medical instruments, facilitating accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients. Additionally, the compact size and reliability of print PCB boards make them well-suited for use in portable medical devices, empowering healthcare professionals to deliver quality care in diverse settings.

Furthermore, print PCB boards play a vital role in the aerospace and defense sectors, where reliability and ruggedness are paramount. From avionics systems to missile guidance systems, these boards are employed in critical applications where failure is not an option. The stringent quality standards and environmental resilience of print PCB boards make them indispensable for ensuring the safety and functionality of aerospace and defense equipment.

In conclusion, the primary applications of print PCB boards span across a wide range of industries, from consumer electronics to aerospace and beyond. Their versatility, reliability, and compact design make them essential components in the technology that drives innovation and progress in the modern world. As advancements in electronics continue to evolve, print PCB boards will remain at the forefront, enabling new and exciting applications that shape the future of technology.

Technology

Cost Considerations For Using Flex PCBs in Product Design

Using Flex PCBs in Product Design

The bending and twisting of flex pcbs allows them to be molded into complex shapes, which makes them ideal for replacing traditional wire harnesses or ribbon connectors in products that need to fit into small spaces. This also helps to reduce assembly time and costs. However, it is important to understand the cost considerations for using flex circuit boards in your product design.

Compared to rigid PCBs, flex circuits use a thinner base material made of either polyester or polyimide. Conductive copper traces are etched into these layers, and then covered with a solder mask. A coverlay then protects the circuit from moisture and dirt. Stiffeners are then used to support the flex layer and provide structure, which can help reduce cost. Stiffeners are commonly made of FR4, although some designs may require aluminum or stainless steel.

Other complexities in manufacturing flex circuits can increase cost as well. For example, blind and buried vias require multiple steps to make, which adds to the overall fabrication time and cost. To reduce this cost, consider minimizing the number of these features in your flex circuit board design.

Rigid-flex pcbs have significant performance benefits for many applications. They are particularly useful in equipment and products that cannot afford to have downtime, such as life support systems or aerospace electronics. In these types of critical applications, the use of low-quality rigid-flex PCBs can have dangerous safety consequences for users or equipment. In addition, the low-quality PCBs will likely have quality issues that affect performance and reliability.

Cost Considerations For Using Flex PCBs in Product Design

To lower your flex PCB cost, work with a contract manufacturer who offers flexible PCBs that meet industry best practices and offers optimized cost. PCB manufacturers that follow these best practices can offer you a competitive price while providing the highest quality and fastest turnaround times.

One of the most significant factors that drives flex circuit board costs is the amount of space between copper traces. Ideally, the distance between traces should be moderate to allow for signal transmission and current conduction without disrupting other components or adding unnecessary rigidity. To improve flex PCB performance and reliability, it is also recommended to avoid tight bend radiuses that could increase the likelihood of damage.

The other major factor is the type of surface finish for your flex circuit board. Options include ENIG, ENEPIG, and other surface treatments. Each has a different effect on copper corrosion, and some are more durable than others. When possible, select a surface finish that provides the most durability for your application.

Another way to decrease your flex PCB costs is to optimize your panel size. Inefficient panelization can raise fabrication and shipping costs, which will also impact your flex PCB cost. To reduce these costs, work with your manufacturing partner to optimize your design for efficiency and to minimize panel thicknesses. In addition, ensure that your flex PCB design uses the minimum amount of space for stiffeners.

Technology

How Do You Calculate the PCB Assy Stackup For a Multilayer Board?

Calculate the PCB Assy Stackup For a Multilayer Board

A pcb assy stackup is the arrangement of copper and insulating layers that make up a multilayer board. This layer-stack is crucial in determining the PCB’s performance and functionality.

It is important to consider the stack-up when designing a circuit board as it influences signal integrity and power delivery. It also plays a role in the overall cost of the project. A carefully planned stack-up will result in noise-free signals and a high-quality PCB. Incorrect stack-up designs can lead to poor signal transmission, shorting, and EMI.

The number of signal layers will affect the stack-up as well. For example, high-speed or high-power applications may require more layers than low-speed ones. Additionally, the number of layers may be impacted by pin density and signal integrity requirements. Ideally, the signal and ground layers should be separate. In addition, the designer should avoid blending signal types on interior layers.

A good start is to use a PCB design tool that will help the designer determine the optimal layer count and stack-up for their application. The tool should provide useful information, including trace current capacity, copper thicknesses, and impedance calculations. It should also offer a number of useful layer-stack options for the designer to choose from.

In addition to a layer-stack calculator, a good PCB design tool will also include an online simulator that can be used to visualize the effects of changing variables in a circuit board. This tool will allow the user to view a model of the circuit board to see how the changes would impact the performance and cost of the final product.

How Do You Calculate the PCB Assy Stackup For a Multilayer Board?

Another essential tip for a pcb assy stackup is to choose the right materials for each layer. This will depend on the PCB’s intended application and signal frequency. For example, a high-speed signal may require thicker copper traces than a low-speed one. Additionally, it is advisable to select a low-Dk material for signal layers.

It is also important to consult the manufacturer at an early stage to understand their capabilities and limitations. This will ensure that the resulting stack-up is suitable for mass production. A reputable manufacturer should be able to scale their process to produce multiple boards at once, reducing the turnaround time and minimizing the risk of errors.

A reputable PCB manufacturer will also advise the designer on the best material to use for each layer of the stack-up and help them balance cost, lead-time/availability, and performance. This will save the designer a lot of time and stress.

Assess the number of layers required based on the complexity of the circuit, including signal, ground, and power layers. Choose suitable dielectric materials and their thicknesses for insulation between the layers, considering electrical performance and mechanical strength. Arrange the layers to alternate signal and plane layers, reducing electromagnetic interference and crosstalk. Typically, ground and power planes are placed internally, with signal layers on the outside.

Use impedance formulas or simulation tools to ensure the stackup supports controlled impedance, critical for high-speed signal integrity. Specify the copper thickness for each layer, balancing current-carrying capacity and manufacturing constraints. Consider thermal requirements and ensure appropriate heat dissipation strategies are integrated into the stackup design.

Technology

The Ultimate Guide to Solder Masks on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

Solder Masks on Printed Circuit Boards

The application of solder masks on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) is one of the most important steps in PCB production, safeguarding the copper traces that form the intricate pathways for electrical signals. Without them, the delicate copper traces would be exposed to environmental factors such as dust and moisture that can corrode them and degrade their conductivity. They would also be vulnerable to shorts, bridges, and other issues that can lead to costly and time-consuming rework and replacement of the PCBs. This Ultimate Guide to Solder Masks will help you understand the purpose, types, and benefits of these coatings by using clear explanations and visual aids.

A solder mask is an applied layer of photoresist-like material that creates openings for the pads and vias on a PCB. The material can be applied through dry film or liquid, depending on the fabrication method used. Dry film photo imageable solder mask is typically applied through an exposure system that applies a thin film of the material to the pcba surface and then cures it with ultraviolet light. Liquid solder mask can be applied through a curtain of liquid that coats the entire PCB surface, or it can be printed using precision printing technology that allows for multiple layers to be applied and cured one at a time.

The most common function of a solder mask is to define the areas where solder can and cannot flow, preventing unwanted connections between different pads or traces on the circuit board. This is achieved by creating bars of solder mask between individual pads, as well as openings for components holes and vias.

The Ultimate Guide to Solder Masks on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

In addition to preventing unwanted connections, the solder mask also protects the copper traces and pads from contamination by dust and other foreign materials. These contaminants can cause bridging or short circuits in the conductive paths of the copper traces, leading to a loss of signal strength and a decrease in PCB reliability. The solder mask can also be used to print text and symbols on the PCB, allowing designers to include necessary information such as component names, part numbers, or date codes.

During the manufacturing process, there may be slight variations in the thickness of the solder mask, which can cause small segments to peel away from the board. These so-called solder mask slivers are a common source of defect in PCBs and must be corrected. This is usually achieved by using a higher viscosity solder mask, which is more likely to adhere to the surface and not flake off easily.

Another common issue that can affect the quality of a PCB is pinholes in the solder mask. These tiny holes or voids in the cured solder mask expose the copper traces and pads to external factors such as oxidation and corrosion. These defects can be caused by poor surface preparation, improper curing, or contamination. In order to prevent them, it is important to check the PCB design for alignment between the pad stack and copper traces, pad stack height, and via size. You should also use the Allegro PCB Editor from Cadence to verify fabrication and assembly rules that will ensure the proper placement of these elements.

Technology

How secure are the data and files processed by AI video editors?

data and files processed by AI video editors

Video content has become a crucial part of marketing strategies, helping brands connect with audiences and drive business growth. However, the creation and editing of video content is a time-consuming process, especially for marketers who deal with large volumes of footage. This is where AI video editors come in, saving creators countless hours while unlocking new creative possibilities.

Unlike traditional video editors, AI-based tools make editing accessible to non-experts by automating many tasks and enhancing the quality of the finished product. The result is high-quality, polished videos that are more engaging and effective than manually edited ones.

While the ability to create high-quality videos quickly and easily is an enormous benefit of using ai video editor, there are some limitations. For one, they are not creative by nature and may lack the intuition that humans possess, which can lead to flawed or even unintentional results. Additionally, some users worry about the security and privacy of their data and files processed by AI-powered software.

How secure are the data and files processed by AI video editors?

Despite these limitations, the potential of AI-based video editing software is immense. With automated tasks like video clip organization, transcription, and content recommendation capabilities, users can spend more time on the creative aspects of editing and focus on delivering impactful videos to their audience.

Aside from automation, AI-powered video editors also offer numerous other features to streamline the editing process and produce better-quality video content. For example, some AI-powered video editing tools can automatically identify the most interesting moments in a video and create highlight reels for social media posts or presentations. Other features include professional transitions and effects, color correction, noise reduction, and automatic tagging. In addition, some AI-based video editing tools can transcribe spoken content to text and generate closed captions or subtitles, making your video more accessible for a wider audience.

At the heart of AI-driven subtitle generation lies advanced speech recognition algorithms coupled with natural language processing (NLP) capabilities. These algorithms analyze the audio track of a video, transcribe spoken words into text, and synchronize them with corresponding timestamps to create subtitles. The process is typically swift and efficient, offering content creators a time-saving alternative to manual transcription.

As video continues to dominate marketing strategy, it is important for businesses of all sizes to stay ahead by embracing AI-powered editing tools. By integrating AI video editing into their workflows, businesses can quickly and efficiently repurpose existing assets and create shareable videos for multiple platforms with a high level of consistency.

Whether you are a fashion brand showcasing your latest collection, a tech startup highlighting a product demo, or a non-profit organization telling an impactful story, AI video editing can help you create a memorable impression on your audience. However, before you start relying on AI-powered video editing, be sure to evaluate how secure it is and how the data and files you upload will be used.

ai video generator

Technology

How Do High Density Interconnects Support IoT Devices?

High Density Interconnects Support IoT Devices

As the Internet of Things (IoT) continues to infiltrate our daily tech, from the home thermostat and lightbulbs to the augmented reality headsets and fitness trackers, there’s one thing all these devices have in common: connectivity. This connectivity, which is made possible by high density interconnects (HDI), enables IoT products to collect and transmit data at rapid speeds, helping streamline processes on a large scale.

IoT device design is pushing the boundaries of traditional PCB construction, which requires an increased level of functionality and flexibility in small form factors. Fortunately, flex and high density interconnect PCBs can provide the needed performance and durability to ensure IoT devices are reliable in their application.

Printed Electronics (PE) is a cost-effective and versatile solution for IoT devices, as it provides flexibility, excellent copper tensile strength, and the ability to incorporate non-traditional shapes into the final product. The latter is especially critical for IoT applications, where the devices may be used in difficult environments or atypical uses such as deep-sea drilling.

How Do High Density Interconnects Support IoT Devices?

A high-density PCB is a multi-layer board that features small trace widths, small gap dimensions, and smaller vias. These improvements help reduce circuitry size and weight, allowing for greater power and data transmission within the board. It also helps reduce overall signal loss and crossing intervals. Additionally, these improvements can result in lower component gaps and higher transistor counts to help improve signal integrity.

The demands of IoT devices have pushed the limits of traditional PCB construction, resulting in a need for denser interconnects. This includes decreased semiconductor rise-times, which require smaller traces and pads. It also requires reduced via diameters and increased buried vias to increase signal density and reduce the size of the component footprint.

In addition, the IoT requires a high level of reliability, as it often works in challenging environments. This can include underwater, in extreme temperature ranges, or when it must be able to work with other devices from different manufacturers. This means that IoT devices must have the highest quality components and must be designed to withstand these conditions.

Aside from requiring higher reliability, IoT devices must be flexible and portable in order to meet their intended function. As such, a high-density PCB is an essential technology for IoT devices.

As the IoT continues to revolutionize industries and connect our physical world with our digital one, it’s crucial that all designers of IoT devices are on the same page throughout the entire design process. Ideally, mechanical, electrical, and HDI designers should work together to evaluate new forms, define the appropriate PCB material and thickness, and develop an efficient layout for assembly into a finished product. This will enable the IoT to continue to transform our lives for years to come.

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Can I use an AC car recharge kit if my car has dual-zone climate control?

AC car recharge kit if my car

On a hot summer day, you turn on your car’s air conditioning. However, instead of the cool, crisp air you expect, warm air blows out of the vents. This can occur if your AC system is low on refrigerant or has a leak. Whether your vehicle is leaking or simply not cooling as well as it used to, it might be time for an a/c recharge and repair service.

While you can purchase an car ac recharge kit at most auto parts stores, recharging your own system without evacuating it first is not recommended. Recharging a car’s air conditioning without emptying it first can lead to damage to the compressor and other components.

A professional mechanic will use a special machine or tool to remove the old refrigerant from your air conditioner. Then, the technician will check the pressure on both sides of your system and determine how much refrigerant to add. Manufacturers stipulate how much refrigerant to add to the system based on weight. The technicians will also look for leaks and fix them before refilling your car’s air conditioning system with new refrigerant.

Can I use an AC car recharge kit if my car has dual-zone climate control?

DIY recharging often leads to overcharging your air conditioning system. Most refrigerant kits come with a hose and pressure gauge that makes it easier to find a leak and monitor the amount of refrigerant added. Adding too much can cause your air conditioner to overheat, leading to system failure and expensive repairs.

An amateur auto service tech may be tempted to speed up the process by skipping the evacuating part of the process. However, doing this can result in your system leaking refrigerant out of the evaporator and into the atmosphere. It can also damage the evaporator and other AC components. One of the key advantages of using a car AC recharge kit is its affordability and accessibility. Professional AC service at a dealership or repair shop can be expensive, often costing hundreds of dollars. In contrast, a recharge kit is available at a fraction of the cost, making it a budget-friendly option for car owners who want to save money on maintenance expenses. Additionally, recharge kits are widely available at auto parts stores, hardware stores, and online retailers, making it easy for consumers to purchase them whenever needed.

Many a/c recharge kits feature a “stop-leak sealer,” which claims to seal small leaks in your air conditioning system. This can either temporarily plug the leak, or it can interfere with the hoses, compressor and pumps in your air conditioning system. It’s best to leave this job to a qualified auto repair shop.

If your car’s air conditioning is not cooling as it should, it might be time to get an a/c evacuate and recharge service from Wrench. Our mobile mechanics can perform this maintenance service at your home or workplace, making it easy and convenient for you to keep your car in top shape. Get a quote now and book your service at a shop you trust.

Technology

How Do PCB Stiffeners Affect Board Flexibility and Bending?

PCB Stiffeners Affect Board Flexibility and Bending

PCB board stiffeners are rigid components attached to the edges of a flexible circuit board. They provide a solid surface for mounting SMT pads and connect the flexible circuit to the rigid portion of the board, making it easier to apply solder and complete circuit runs. Stiffeners are a crucial element in flex and rigid-flex printed circuit boards because they help to reduce the amount of stress on the conductive copper and the solder joints that hold it in place. Without stiffeners, a flex PCB can rip the copper away from the pad, creating a short circuit. Stiffeners also allow for better handling of the flex circuit by machine pickers during assembly and reduce the risk of damage to the connectors or SMT pads.

There are many factors to consider when selecting a pcb board stiffeners for your application, including the material type and thickness. The ideal stiffener will offer a balance of flexibility and rigidity, depending on the expected stress and deflection requirements. Additionally, the stiffener must be compatible with the substrate materials to avoid thermal expansion issues. Finally, the stiffener must be anchored to the PCB with adequate adhesives to prevent shifting and outgassing.

Stiffeners can be made from a variety of materials, from standard FR-4 glass epoxy to polyimide and aluminum. Glass-reinforced epoxy is a popular choice for stiffeners because it uses the same material as the FPC and offers cost-effectiveness and quick turnaround times. Polyimide, on the other hand, offers superior performance with its dimensional stability and electrical insulation properties. Aluminum is a good choice for high-performance applications that require heat dissipation and strength.

How Do PCB Stiffeners Affect Board Flexibility and Bending?

The thickness of a pcb board stiffener is also important, as it will impact weight and rigidity. A thicker stiffener will increase rigidity, while a thinner one will be more flexible. For best results, the thickness of the stiffener should be matched to the flex PCB to ensure that they are compatible.

Depending on the design of your flex PCB, you may need to use multiple stiffeners in order to achieve the desired level of rigidity. To ensure that the stiffeners do not shift, they should be securely anchored to the substrate using adhesives or mechanical anchoring. In addition, they should be positioned on the areas of the flex circuit that need the most support.

In order to minimize flex PCB damage, you should always try to make a minimum of 20 bends in your circuit. Bends in excess of this will cause the copper to rip away from the pads, making them unusable. You can avoid this by using stiffeners that are appropriately sized for your flex circuit.

While flex and rigid-flex circuits are not as susceptible to damage as traditional PCBs, they do need to be handled carefully. A reliable contract manufacturer (CM) with experience designing and building these types of circuits will know how to minimize damage by using stiffeners properly. This will not only protect the copper, but also save time and money on the assembly process.